Marcus Garvey’s 1921 “If you believe the Negro has a soul” speech

After World War I ended, many Black Americans expected to return home to celebrations of their contributions in the war fought to preserve democracy and human rights in Europe. Instead, racism was alive and well. This is evidenced by the rebirth of Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s, and discriminatory practices in the segregated south.

The Universal Negro Improvement Association was headed by the charismatic Marcus Garvey. He believed that the best course of action would be for Blacks to leave the United States and have a self-sufficient nation in Africa. He did not believe that racial equality and harmony would be possible in the U.S. and Europe in the 1920s.

We have included his 1921 speech with questions and answers.

For more on this era check out our 1920s PowerPoint.

Nixon’s Plan for Energy Crisis, 1973

gas pumps closed

Nixon’s Energy Crisis Speech outlines a plan for saving gasoline in response to the energy crisis of 1973:

1. Adjust the amount of fuel produced for consumption

2. Gas stations voluntarily close to conserve fuel, between 9pm Saturday-12am Sunday

3. A nationwide speed limit of 50 miles per hour

4. Reducing the amount of fuel used by airliners with a shorter schedule of flights

5. Reducing the use of electricity in the home, including during the holiday season with decorating lights

6. Reduced quantites of heating oil in the winter for home, commercial and business use

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